真空过滤机厂家
免费服务热线

Free service

hotline

010-00000000
真空过滤机厂家
热门搜索:
行业资讯
当前位置:首页 > 行业资讯

计算机最终证明400年数学难题

发布时间:2020-01-14 19:06:04 阅读: 来源:真空过滤机厂家

新华网8月13日电据科技博客网站Gizmodo报道,早在1611年,德国数学家、天文学家开普勒曾提出一个猜想。他猜测,最有效率的堆放球形物体(例如市场里的橙子)的方式是金字塔形。遗憾的是,他没能证明这个命题。不过,现在一台计算机最终证明了这个猜想的正确性,解决了已经争论了四个世纪的问题。

事实上,美国匹兹堡大学的托马斯·哈尔斯(002615,股吧)在1998年就提出过解决这个问题的证明。不过由于长达300页,12名审阅者花了4年来寻找错误。即使这样,他们也只能99%确信这个证明的正确性。所以在2003年,哈尔斯开始了他的“蝇斑计划”,即用计算机工具来检查他给出的证明的正确性。

这项计划使用了名为“Isabelle”和“HOL light”的两款形式化验证的校验软件。二者都基于小巧而易证的一系列逻辑语句。如同数学证明一样,只要给以足够的时间,软件能够检验任何其他逻辑语句。

上周日,哈尔斯和他的团队宣布,300页的证明已经经由两款软件检验完成。让他长舒一口气的是,证明完全正确。换句话说,计算机成功证明了开普勒400年前提出的猜想的正确性。“我觉得我一下年轻了10岁,”哈尔斯对《新科学家》杂志表示。

当然,这一好消息对别的科学家也有重大的意义。数学家们每年都会给出数百个异常复杂的数学证明,而这一消息证明除了人工检查之外,计算机也能对它们进行验证。这意味着,数学家们可以尝试用更新鲜的方法解决难题了。至于复杂繁琐的验证工作,让计算机完成就好。

译者:梁爽

百度新闻与新华网国际频道合作稿件,转载请注明出处。A Computer Has Finally Proven the Answer to a 400-Year-Old Math Problem Jamie Condliffe

Way back in 1611, Johannes Kepler suggested that the most efficient way to stack spheres—like arranging oranges for sale—was in a pyramid formation. Sadly, he couldn"t prove it, but now a computer has finally verified it to be true, settling centuries of debate.

In fact, Thomas Hales of the University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, developed a proof for the problem back in 1998. But at 300 pages, it took 12 reviewers four years to check for errors—and even then, they were only 99 percent certain it was correct. So, in 2003, Hales began to create the Flyspeck project: a computational tool that would check his proof.

It uses two pieces of formal verification software—delightfully called Isabelle and HOL Light—both of which rely on just a small, easily validated series of logical statements. With those, they can check any series of other logical statements, like a mathematical proof, if they have enough time.

Just this Sunday, Hales and his team announced that the 300 pages of proof had been scrutinized by the pair of programs and, to his relief, it"s all correct. In other words, the computer successfully verified that the idea put forward by Kepler over 400 years ago is right. "I suddenly feel ten years younger," Hales told New Scientist.

But it"s not just good news for Hales. There are hundreds of ridiculously dense mathematical proofs created every year, and this demonstrates that they can checked by computers rather than humans. That means that mathematicians can now concentrate on thinking creatively about their problems—and let computers do the grunt work of checking to make sure they"re correct. [New Scientist]

名医汇

预约挂号收取服务费

在线挂号服务平台

网上预约挂号服务平台